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Reinhard and Planavsky


Chris Reinhard (left) and Noah Planavsky (center), lead authors of the study and former UCR graduate students, sample iron-rich rocks in northern China. These samples help fill an important gap in the chromium isotope data and suggest very low oxygen levels during the time interval leading up to the first appearance of animals. Also shown is Chao Li, a colleague. Photo credit: X. Chu, Chinese Academy of Sciences.